The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the reserve components (RC) of the United States Army. The United States Army Reserve (USAR) size is 205,297 personnel.

Reserve soldiers perform only part-time duties as opposed to full-time (active duty) soldiers, but rotate through mobilizations to full-time duty. When not on active duty, reserve soldiers typically perform training/service one weekend per month, known as inactive duty for training (IADT) and currently referred to as Battle Assembly, and for two continuous weeks at some time during the year referred to as Annual Training (AT). Many reserve soldiers are organized into Army Reserve troop program units (TPU), while others serve in active Army units as Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMA), or are in non-drilling control groups of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR). Reserve Soldiers may also serve on active duty in support of the US Army Reserve (USAR) in an Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) status.

All United States Army soldiers sign an initial eight year service contract upon entry into the military. Typically, the contract specifies that some of the service will be in the Regular Army (also called Active Component/AC) for two, three, or four years; with the remaining obligation served in the Reserve Component (RC). Some Soldiers elect to sign contracts specifying that all eight years be served in the RC.

Soldiers entering directly into the Army Reserve nevertheless spend a period of initial active duty (approximately five months depending upon Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)) for basic training and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). All Army Reserve soldiers, are subject to mobilization throughout the term of their enlistment. Soldiers who, after completing the AC portion of their enlistment contract choose not to re-enlist on active duty, are automatically transferred to the RC to complete the remainder of their Statutory Obligation (eight year service total) and may be served as drilling TPU, IMA, or IRR status.

After the expiration of the initial twenty year service contract, soldiers who elect to continue their service may sign subsequent contracts of varying durations consecutively until they finally leave the service; however, officers may have the option to opt for an indefinite contract, in which case the soldier remains a part of the military until they retire, are removed from the service for cause, or are granted authority to resign their commissions.

Officers, Warrant Officers, and Enlisted personnel in the rank of Staff Sergeant (E-6) and above are considered to be on indefinite status if they have more than 10 years of service. (This no longer applies to reenlist with an "Indefinite" status as part of the Army Reserve. Memo is dated 20080110 - It is not retroactive.)

Current formations and units

US Army Reserve Headquarters Commands

United States AR seal.svg Office of the Chief, Army Reserve (OCAR) at The Pentagon, Washington, DC

OCAR provides the Chief, Army Reserve (CAR) with a staff of functional advisors who develop and execute Army Reserve plans, policies and programs, plus administer Army Reserve personnel, operations and funding. The CAR is responsible for plans, policies and programs affecting all Army Reserve Soldiers, including those who report directly to the Army. OCAR is composed of specialized groups that advise and support the CAR on a wide variety of issues.

US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) at Fort McPherson,Georgia

Through USARC, the CAR commands all Army Reserve units. USARC is responsible for the staffing, training, management and deployment of its units to ensure their readiness for Army missions. The Army Reserve which consists of three main categories of units: operational and functional, support, and training.

Operational and Functional Commands

3rd MDSC SSI.gif 3rd Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MDSC) at Fort Gillem, Georgia

  • 7th Civil Support Command, at Kaiserslautern, Germany

11th Avn Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.png 11th Aviation Command (Theater) at Fort Knox, Kentucky

  • 79th Sustainment Support Command, at Los Alamitos, California

143 ESC SSI.jpg 143rd Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (ESC) at Orlando, Florida.
200MPCmdSSI.jpg 200th Military Police Command, at Fort Meade, Maryland

  • 311th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (ESC), at Fort Shafter, Hawaii

335 TSC.gif 335th Signal Command (Theater), at East Point, Georgia

  • 377th Sustainment Command (Theater) at Belle Chasse, Louisiana

412-Engineer-Command-SSI.png 412th Theater Engineer Command (TEC) at Vicksburg, Mississippi

  • 416th Theater Engineer Command (TEC) at Darien, Illinois

807th SSI.gif 807th Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MDSC) at Fort Douglas, Salt Lake, Utah
Army Reserve Medical Command SSI.jpg United States Army Reserve Medical Command (AR-MEDCOM) at Pinellas Park, Florida

  • Military Intelligence Readiness Command (MIRC) at Fort Belvoir, Virginia

USACAPOC(A) small.jpg United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborne) (USACAPOC-A) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

  • United States Army Reserve Joint and Special Troops Support Command at

Support Commands

  • 1st Mission Support Command at Fort McPherson, Georgia

63rd Infantry Division SSI.svg 63rd Regional Support Command "Blood and Fire" at Moffett Field, California
US Army 81st Infantry Division SSI.svg 81st Regional Support Command "Wildcat Division" at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
85th Division SSI.svg 85th Support Command "Custer Division" at Arlington Heights, Illinois
US 87th Infantry Division.svg 87th Support Command "The Golden Acorn Division" at Birmingham, Alabama
88th Infantry Division SSI.svg 88th Regional Support Command at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin
US 99th Infantry Division.svg 99th Regional Support Command "Checkerboard" at Fort Dix, New Jersey

  • 78th Army Reserve Band

USAR Career Div SSI.jpg Army Reserve Careers Division at Fort McPherson, Georgia

Training Commands, Institutional

75e Division d'Infanterie (USA).svg 75th Training Command (Battle Command Training Division) at Houston, Texas
80th Inf Div SSI SVG.svg 80th Training Command (TASS) "Blue Ridge Division" at Richmond, Virginia
US 84th Infantry Division.svg 84th Training Command "Lincoln County Division" at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin
108-Div-SSI.png 108th Training Command (Individual Entry Training) "Golden Griffins" at Charlotte, North Carolina
166AviationBdeSSI.jpg 166th Aviation Brigade at Fort Hood, Texas

US Army Reserve Training Support Commands

  • First United States Army East at Fort Meade, Maryland
  • First United States Army West at Fort Carson, Colorado

US Army Reserve Special Units

  • 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry

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