US Army Reserve

The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the reserve components (RC) of the United States Army. The United States Army Reserve (USAR) size is 205,297 personnel.

Reserve soldiers perform only part-time duties as opposed to full-time (active duty) soldiers, but rotate through mobilizations to full-time duty. When not on active duty, reserve soldiers typically perform training/service one weekend per month, known as inactive duty for training (IADT) and currently referred to as Battle Assembly, and for two continuous weeks at some time during the year referred to as Annual Training (AT). Many reserve soldiers are organized into Army Reserve troop program units (TPU), while others serve in active Army units as Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMA), or are in non-drilling control groups of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR). Reserve Soldiers may also serve on active duty in support of the US Army Reserve (USAR) in an Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) status.

All United States Army soldiers sign an initial eight year service contract upon entry into the military. Typically, the contract specifies that some of the service will be in the Regular Army (also called Active Component/AC) for two, three, or four years; with the remaining obligation served in the Reserve Component (RC). Some Soldiers elect to sign contracts specifying that all eight years be served in the RC.

Soldiers entering directly into the Army Reserve nevertheless spend a period of initial active duty (approximately five months depending upon Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)) for basic training and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). All Army Reserve soldiers, are subject to mobilization throughout the term of their enlistment. Soldiers who, after completing the AC portion of their enlistment contract choose not to re-enlist on active duty, are automatically transferred to the RC to complete the remainder of their Statutory Obligation (eight year service total) and may be served as drilling TPU, IMA, or IRR status.

After the expiration of the initial twenty year service contract, soldiers who elect to continue their service may sign subsequent contracts of varying durations consecutively until they finally leave the service; however, officers may have the option to opt for an indefinite contract, in which case the soldier remains a part of the military until they retire, are removed from the service for cause, or are granted authority to resign their commissions.

Officers, Warrant Officers, and Enlisted personnel in the rank of Staff Sergeant (E-6) and above are considered to be on indefinite status if they have more than 10 years of service. (This no longer applies to reenlist with an "Indefinite" status as part of the Army Reserve. Memo is dated 20080110 - It is not retroactive.)

Current formations and units

US Army Reserve Headquarters Commands

United States AR seal.svg Office of the Chief, Army Reserve (OCAR) at The Pentagon, Washington, DC

OCAR provides the Chief, Army Reserve (CAR) with a staff of functional advisors who develop and execute Army Reserve plans, policies and programs, plus administer Army Reserve personnel, operations and funding. The CAR is responsible for plans, policies and programs affecting all Army Reserve Soldiers, including those who report directly to the Army. OCAR is composed of specialized groups that advise and support the CAR on a wide variety of issues.

US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) at Fort McPherson,Georgia

Through USARC, the CAR commands all Army Reserve units. USARC is responsible for the staffing, training, management and deployment of its units to ensure their readiness for Army missions. The Army Reserve which consists of three main categories of units: operational and functional, support, and training.

Operational and Functional Commands

3rd MDSC SSI.gif 3rd Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MDSC) at Fort Gillem, Georgia

  • 7th Civil Support Command, at Kaiserslautern, Germany

11th Avn Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.png 11th Aviation Command (Theater) at Fort Knox, Kentucky

  • 79th Sustainment Support Command, at Los Alamitos, California

143 ESC SSI.jpg 143rd Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (ESC) at Orlando, Florida.
200MPCmdSSI.jpg 200th Military Police Command, at Fort Meade, Maryland

  • 311th Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (ESC), at Fort Shafter, Hawaii

335 TSC.gif 335th Signal Command (Theater), at East Point, Georgia

  • 377th Sustainment Command (Theater) at Belle Chasse, Louisiana

412-Engineer-Command-SSI.png 412th Theater Engineer Command (TEC) at Vicksburg, Mississippi

  • 416th Theater Engineer Command (TEC) at Darien, Illinois

807th SSI.gif 807th Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MDSC) at Fort Douglas, Salt Lake, Utah
Army Reserve Medical Command SSI.jpg United States Army Reserve Medical Command (AR-MEDCOM) at Pinellas Park, Florida

  • Military Intelligence Readiness Command (MIRC) at Fort Belvoir, Virginia

USACAPOC(A) small.jpg United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborne) (USACAPOC-A) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

  • United States Army Reserve Joint and Special Troops Support Command at

Support Commands

  • 1st Mission Support Command at Fort McPherson, Georgia

63rd Infantry Division SSI.svg 63rd Regional Support Command "Blood and Fire" at Moffett Field, California
US Army 81st Infantry Division SSI.svg 81st Regional Support Command "Wildcat Division" at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
85th Division SSI.svg 85th Support Command "Custer Division" at Arlington Heights, Illinois
US 87th Infantry Division.svg 87th Support Command "The Golden Acorn Division" at Birmingham, Alabama
88th Infantry Division SSI.svg 88th Regional Support Command at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin
US 99th Infantry Division.svg 99th Regional Support Command "Checkerboard" at Fort Dix, New Jersey

  • 78th Army Reserve Band

USAR Career Div SSI.jpg Army Reserve Careers Division at Fort McPherson, Georgia

Training Commands, Institutional

75e Division d'Infanterie (USA).svg 75th Training Command (Battle Command Training Division) at Houston, Texas
80th Inf Div SSI SVG.svg 80th Training Command (TASS) "Blue Ridge Division" at Richmond, Virginia
US 84th Infantry Division.svg 84th Training Command "Lincoln County Division" at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin
108-Div-SSI.png 108th Training Command (Individual Entry Training) "Golden Griffins" at Charlotte, North Carolina
166AviationBdeSSI.jpg 166th Aviation Brigade at Fort Hood, Texas

US Army Reserve Training Support Commands

  • First United States Army East at Fort Meade, Maryland
  • First United States Army West at Fort Carson, Colorado

US Army Reserve Special Units

  • 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry

US Army Recruiting Command

The United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC) mission is to recruit the enlisted, non-commissioned and officer candidates for service in the United States Army and Army Reserve. This process includes the recruiting, medical and psychological examination, induction, and administrative processing of potential service personnel.

The US Army Recruiting Command is a field operating agency administratively responsible to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. The Command employs more than 7200 Active and Reserve Component recruiters at more than 1,600 recruiting stations across the United States and overseas. The Command is guided in its operations by the United States Mobilization Doctrine.

The Command includes is commanded by a Major General, and assisted by two Deputy Commanding Generals (Brigadier Generals.), Deputy Commanding General (West) and Deputy Commanding General (East), with five recruitment brigades and a number of support brigades in the Command.

General Paul Gorman’s (USA, ret.) in his institutional history of the US Army, The Secret of Future Victories, credits George C. Marshall as the architect of the modern version of the current system for personnel allocation. This system has often been criticised as one that encourage careerism in the officer and NCO corps.

Recruitment brigades

There are five recruitment, one medical recruitment and one recruitment support brigades in the Command. Each brigade consists of a number of battalions, with each battalion consisting of six to nine companies. A battalion, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel or Colonel, employs about 12 officers, 250 enlisted members, of which majority are onproduction recruiters working from recruiting stations, and some 20 civilian support staff.

The recruitment brigades, and their battalions, are:

  • 1st Recruiting Brigade Northeast Region HQ located at Fort George Meade, MD
    • 1A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Albany, Watervliet, NY
    • 1B U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Baltimore, Fort George G. Meade, MD
    • 1D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion New England, Topsham, ME
    • 1E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Harrisburg, New Cumberland Army Depot, PA
    • 1G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion New York City, Fort Hamilton, NY
    • 1K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Mid-Atlantic, Lakehurst Naval Air Station, NJ
    • 1N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Syracuse, Syracuse, NY
    • 1O U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Beckley, Beckley, WV
  • 2d Recruiting Brigade Southeast Region HQ located at Redstone Arsenal, AL
    • 3A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Atlanta, Smyrna, GA
    • 3D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Columbia, Columbia, SC
    • 3E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL
    • 3G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Miami, Miami, FL
    • 3H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Montgomery, Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base Annex, AL
    • 3J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Raleigh, Raleigh, NC
    • 3N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Tampa, Tampa, FL
    • 3T U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, LA
    • 3W U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Special Operations Recruiting Battalion, Fort Bragg, NC
  • 3d Recruiting Brigade Upper Midwest Region HQ located at Fort Knox, KY
    • 5A U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Chicago, Great Lakes, IL
    • 5C U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Cleveland, Cleveland, OH
    • 5D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Columbus, Columbus, OH
    • 5H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN
    • 5I U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Great Lakes, Lansing, MI
    • 5J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
    • 5K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Minneapolis, Fort Snelling, MN
    • 5N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Nashville, Nashville, TN
  • 5th Recruiting Brigade South-central Region HQ located at Wainwright Station, Fort Sam Houston, TX
    • 4C U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Dallas, Irving, TX
    • 4D U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Denver, Denver, CO
    • 4E U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Houston, Houston, TX
    • 4G U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Kansas City, Kansas City, MO
    • 4J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City, OK
    • 4K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion San Antonio, Fort Sam Houston, TX
    • 4P U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ
  • 6th Recruiting Brigade Western Region HQ located at North Las Vegas, NV
    • 6F U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Los Angeles, Encino, CA
    • 6H U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Portland, Portland, OR
    • 6I U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Sacramento, Rancho Cordova, CA
    • 6J U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City, UT
    • 6K U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Southern California, Mission Viejo, CA
    • 6L U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Seattle, Seattle, WA
    • 6N U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Fresno, Fresno, CA
  • U.S. Army Medical Recruiting Brigade, Fort Knox, KY
    • 1st Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Meade, MD
    • 2nd Medical Recruiting Battalion Redstone Arsenal, AL
    • 3rd Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Knox, KY
    • 5th Medical Recruiting Battalion Fort Sam Houston, TX
    • 6th Medical Recruiting Battalion Las Vegas, NV
  • Accessions Support Brigade, Fort Knox, KY
  • Mission Support Battalion, Fort Knox, KY

Each recruiting battalion consists of recruiting companies in its area, with 243 companies currently providing recruiting facilities as offices and stations throughout United States and its territories. The Command also conducts recruiting operations in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and at U.S. facilities in Panama, Europe, and Asia.


Current key command personnel of the Command include:

  • Commander Major General Donald M. Campbell Jr.
  • Deputy Commanding General Brigadier General Michael X. Garrett
  • Command Sergeant Major Stephan Frennier

Past commanders

  • Major General Thomas P. Bostick 2005
  • Major General Michael D. Rochelle - 2005
  • Major General Cavin, Dennis D. 2000
  • Major General Evan R. Gaddis 1998
  • General Maxwell "Mad Max" Reid Thurman 1979-1984 developed the service's "Be all that you can be" campaign.

US Army Branch Establishment

The U.S. Army was officially founded on 14 June 1775, when the Continental Congress authorized enlistment of riflemen to serve the United Colonies for one year. Each branch of the Army has a different branch insignia.

US Army Basic branches

  • Infantry, 14 June 1775

Ten companies of riflemen were authorized by a resolution of the Continental Congress on 14 June 1775. However, the oldest Regular Army infantry regiment, the 3rd Infantry Regiment, was constituted on 3 June 1784, as the First American Regiment.

  • Adjutant General's Corps, 16 June 1775

The post of Adjutant General was established 16 June 1775, and has been continuously in operation since that time. The Adjutant General's Department, by that name, was established by the act of 3 March 1812, and was redesignated the Adjutant General's Corps in 1950.

  • Corps of Engineers, 16 June 1775

Continental Congress authority for a "Chief Engineer for the Army" dates from 16 June 1775. A corps of Engineers for the United States was authorized by the Congress on 11 March 1789. The Corps of Engineers as it is known today came into being on 16 March 1802, when the President was authorized to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers … that the said Corps … shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy." A Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, was merged with the Corps of Engineers on March 1863.

  • Finance Corps, 16 June 1775

The Finance Corps is the successor to the old Pay Department, which was created in June 1775. The Finance Department was created by law on 1 July 1920. It became the Finance Corps in 1950.

  • Quartermaster Corps, 16 June 1775

The Quartermaster Corps, originally designated the Quartermaster Department, was established on 16 June 1775. While numerous additions, deletions, and changes of function have occurred, its basic supply and service support functions have continued in existence.

  • Field Artillery, 17 November 1775

The Continental Congress unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery" on 17 November 1775. The regiment formally entered service on 1 January 1776.

  • Armor, 12 June 1776

The Armor branch traces its origin to the Cavalry. A regiment of cavalry was authorized to be raised by the Continental Congress Resolve of 12 December 1776. Although mounted units were raised at various times after the Revolution, the first in continuous service was the United States Regiment of Dragoons, organized in 1833. The Tank Service was formed on 5 March 1918. The Armored Force was formed on 10 July 1940. Armor became a permanent branch of the Army in 1950.

  • Ordnance Corps, 14 May 1812

The Ordnance Department was established by act of Congress on 14 May 1812. During the Revolutionary War, ordnance material was under supervision of the Board of War and Ordnance. Numerous shifts in duties and responsibilities have occurred in the Ordnance Corps since colonial times. It acquired its present designation in 1950. Ordnance soldiers and officers provide maintenance and ammunition support.

  • Signal Corps, 21 June 1860

The Signal Corps was authorized as a separate branch of the Army by act of Congress on 3 March 1863. However, the Signal Corps dates its existence from 21 June 1860, when Congress authorized the appointment of one signal officer in the Army, and a War Department order carried the following assignment: "Signal Department--Assistant Surgeon Albert J. Myer to be Signal Officer, with the rank of Major, 27 June 1860], to fill an original vacancy."

  • Chemical Corps, 28 June 1918

The Chemical Warfare Service was established on 28 June 1918, combining activities that until then had been dispersed among five separate agencies of Government. It was made a permanent branch of the Regular Army by the National Defense Act of 1920. In 1945, it was re-designated the Chemical Corps.

  • Military Police Corps, 26 September 1941

A Provost Marshal General's Office and Corps of Military Police were established in 1941. Prior to that time, except during the Civil War and World War I, there was no regularly appointed Provost Marshal General or regularly constituted Military Police Corps, although a "Provost Marshal" can be found as early as January 1776, and a "Provost Corps" as early as 1778.

  • Transportation Corps, 31 July 1942

The historical background of the Transportation Corps starts with World War I. Prior to that time, transportation operations were chiefly the responsibility of the Quartermaster General. The Transportation Corps, essentially in its present form, was organized on 31 July 1942. The Transportation Corps is headquartered at Fort Eustis, Virginia under the mantra "Spearhead of Logistics" and command of Brigadier General Brian R. Layer.

  • Military Intelligence Corps, 1 July 1962

Intelligence has been an essential element of Army operations during war as well as during periods of peace. In the past, requirements were met by personnel from the Army Intelligence and Army Security Reserve branches, two-year obligated tour officers, one-tour levies on the various branches, and Regular Army officers in the specialization programs. To meet the Army's increased requirement for national and tactical intelligence, an Intelligence and Security Branch was established in the Army effective 1 July 1962, by General Order No. 38, on 3 July 1962. On 1 July 1967, the branch was re-designated as Military intelligence.

  • Air Defense Artillery, 20 June 1968

The Air Defense Artillery separated from the Field Artillery and was established as a basic branch on 20 June 1968, per General Order 25, 14 June 1968.

  • Aviation, 12 April 1983

Following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force as a separate service in 1947, the Army began to develop further its own aviation assets (light planes and rotary wing aircraft) in support of ground operations. The Korean War gave this drive impetus, and the war in Vietnam saw its fruition, as Army aviation units performed a variety of missions, including reconnaissance, transport, and fire support. After the war in Vietnam, the role of armed helicopters as tank destroyers received new emphasis. In recognition of the growing importance of aviation in Army doctrine and operations, Aviation became a separate branch on 12 April 1983.

  • Special Forces, 9 April 1987

The first Special Forces unit in the Army was formed on 11 June 1952, when the 10th Special Forces Group was activated at Fort Brag, North Carolina. A major expansion of Special Forces occurred during the 1960s, with a total of eighteen groups organized in the Regular Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard. As a result of renewed emphasis on special operations in the 1980s, the Special Forces Branch was established as a basic branch of the Army effective 9 April 1987, by General Order No. 35, 19 June 1987. Special Forces are part of U.S. Special Operations Forces

  • Civil Affairs Corps, 16 October 2006

The Civil Affairs/Military Government Branch in the Army Reserve Branch was established as a special branch on 17 August 1955. Subsequently redesignated the Civil Affairs Branch on 2 October 1955, it has continued its mission to provide guidance to commanders in a broad spectrum of activities ranging from host-guest relationships to the assumption of executive, legislative, and judicial processes in occupied or liberated areas. Became a basic branch effective 16 October 2006 per General Order 29, on 12 January 2007.

  • Psychological Operations, 16 October 2006

Established as a basic branch effective 16 October 2006 per General Order 30, 12 January 2007. Name will change to Military Information Support Operations at a date TBD.

  • Logistics, 1 January 2008

Established by General Order 6, 27 November 2007. Consists of multi-functional logistics officers in the rank of captain and above, drawn from the Ordnance, Quartermaster and Transportation Corps.

US Army Special branches

  • Army Medical Department, 27 July 1775

The Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to 27 July 1775, when the Continental Congress established the Army hospital headed by a "Director General and Chief Physician." Congress provided a medical organization of the Army only in time of war or emergency until 1818, which marked the inception of a permanent and continuous Medical Department. The Army Organization Act of 1950 renamed the Medical Department as the Army Medical Service. In June 1968, the Army Medical Service was re-designated the Army Medical Department. The Medical Department has the following branches:

  • Medical Corps, 27 July 1775
  • Army Nurse Corps, 2 February 1901
  • Dental Corps, 3 March 1911
  • Veterinary Corps, 3 June 1916
  • Medical Service Corps, 30 June 1917
  • Army Medical Specialist Corps, 16 April 1947
  • Chaplain Corps, 29 July 1775

The legal origin of the Chaplain Corps is found in a resolution of the Continental Congress, adopted 29 July 1775, which made provision for the pay of chaplains. The Office of the Chief of Chaplains was created by the National Defense Act of 1920.

  • Judge Advocate General's Corps, 29 July 1775

The Office of Judge Advocate of the Army may be deemed to have been created on 29 July 1775, and has generally paralleled the origin and development of the American system of military justice. The Judge Advocate General Department, by that name, was established in 1884. Its present designation as a corps was enacted in 1948.

US Army Uniform

The uniforms of the United States Army distinguish soldiers from other service members. The two primary uniforms are the US Army Combat Uniform, used in operational environments, and the US Army Service Uniform, worn during formal and ceremonial occasional.

US Army Combat uniform

The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) is the utility uniform worn in garrison and in combat zones by the U.S. Army. The uniform features a digital camouflage pattern, known as the Universal Camouflage Pattern, which is designed for use in woodland, desert, and urban environments.[1] The ACU jacket uses hook-and-loop-backed attachments to secure items such as name tapes, rank insignia, and shoulder patches and tabs, as well as recognition devices such as the American flag patch and the infrared (IR) tab. Three U.S. flag insignia are authorized for wear with the ACU: full-color, full-color IR, and subdued IR. The U.S. flag insignia is worn on the right shoulder pocket flap of the ACU coat. Unit patches are worn on the left shoulder, while combat patches are worn on the right. Only pin-on skill badges and shoulder tabs are authorized for wear. In the field, the jacket may be replaced by the flame resistant Army Combat Shirt when worn directly under a tactical vest. Soldiers operating in Afghanistan will soon be issued a "Multicam" pattern better suited to that country's terrain.

US Army Service uniform

The standard garrison service uniform is known as the "Army Service Uniform." It will replace the "Army Greens," or "Class A" uniform, which had been worn by all officers and enlisted personnel since its introduction in 1956, when it replaced earlier Olive Drab (OD) and khaki (and Tropical Worsted or TW) uniforms worn between the 1890s and 1985. The "Army Blue" uniform, dating back to the "Virginia Blues" of George Washington's first command, in the Colonial Virginia Militia, which previously served as the Army's formal dress uniform, was phased in to replace the Army Green and the Army White uniforms in October 2009 and has been redesignated the Army Service Uniform. This uniform will function as both a garrison uniform (when worn with a white shirt and necktie) and a dress uniform (when worn with a white shirt and a bow tie for "after six" or "black tie" events). The blue uniform will be a mandatory wear item by fourth quarter, FY2014. The beret, adopted Army-wide in 2001, will continue to be worn with the new ACU for garrison duty and with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions.

US Army Green Service Uniform

The main current service uniform is known as the green service uniform or "Class A's." The Army reviewed various ideas in the late 1940s in order to create a distinctive uniform. Pride in the uniform became a major issue in morale and retention, due to use of drab colors. Also, many civilian workers were mistaken for Army personnel, due to massive use of Army surplus clothing after World War II.

Army commissions reviewed various factors of design, durability and appearance. Blue was considered because of its acceptance in men's clothing, but it would then have been too difficult to distinguish it from Air Force and Navy service uniforms and the Marine Corps and Navy dress uniforms. Several colors were reviewed, and finally green (shade 44) was designated the basic color for new dress uniforms.

The green uniform has been worn with minor variations since its official adoption in 1954. The green color was adopted in order to provide a color which was more military, and distinct from various uniforms of civilian service workers. It is scheduled to be discontinued in 2014. It features a jacket with four buttons. Enlisted soldiers wear insignia denoting their branch of service on their collars. Officers wear two sets of insignia consisting of the letters "US" on their collars and their branch on their lapels.

Proficiency badges, such as the marksman's badge, are worn on the upper left pocket flap. Above this are the ribbons for medals and commendations which have been earned for various actions, duties and training. Above the ribbons are qualification badges, such as the paratrooper badges and Combat Action Badge. A nametag is worn on the upper right pocket flap. Unit awards and foreign awards are worn above the pocket, with a regimental insignia above both. Special duty badges, such as the recruiter's badge, are worn on the upper two pockets of the jacket; the side on which they are worn varies by badge, and is specified by regulation.

On each shoulder of the uniform are unit patches. The left side will have the patch of the current unit the soldier is stationed with. On the right shoulder of the dress uniform the soldier may wear the patch of the unit to which the soldier was assigned while deployed to a combat zone. Tabs indicating Ranger or Special Forces qualification, if applicable, are worn above the unit patch on the left shoulder. A similar "airborne" tab is worn immediately above the unit patch if the command is designated as majority airborne, irrespective of whether the individual soldier is qualified as a paratrooper. As the shoulder sleeve insignia generally indicates merely the general-officer command to which the soldier is assigned, the soldier's immediate battalion or intermediate-level command is indicated by distinctive unit insignia of metal and enamel, on the soldier's epaulets.

The Army Green Service Uniform has being withdrawn from issue in the fall of 2009. Only the new Blue ASU is being issued. The Army Green Service Uniform will be withdrawn after July 2014.

US Army Mess uniform

Mess dress is the military term for the formal evening dress worn in the mess or at other formal occasions. This is generally worn as the military equivalent of white tie or black tie. The Army blue mess uniform comprises the Army blue jacket, dark- or light-blue high-waisted trousers, white semiformal dress shirt with a turndown collar, black bow tie, and black cummerbund. The Army blue evening mess uniform comprises the Army blue jacket, dark- or light-blue high-waisted trousers, white formal dress shirt with a wing collar, white vest, and white bow tie. The blue trousers are cut along the lines of civilian dress trousers, with a high waist and without pleats, cuffs, or hip pockets. The trouser leg ornamentation consists of an ornamental braid worn on the outside seam of the trouser leg, from the bottom of the waistband to the bottom of the trouser leg. General officers wear pants of the same color as the jacket, with two 1⁄2–inch, two-vellum gold, synthetic metallic gold, or gold-colored nylon or rayon braids, spaced 1⁄2 inch apart. Current stated uniform regulation for mess dress is that all other officers and enlisted personnel have one 1 1⁄2 inch, two-vellum gold, synthetic metallic gold, or gold-colored nylon or rayon braid. However, regulations for the Army Service Uniform dictate that the trousers of junior enlisted personnel, specialist and below, be without ornamentation. There has been no official Army guidance as to whether this should also apply to the mess and evening mess uniforms.

The Army white mess uniform comprises the Army white jacket, black high-waisted trousers, white semiformal dress shirt with a turndown collar, black bow tie, and black cummerbund. The Army white evening mess uniform comprises the Army white jacket, black high-waisted trousers, white formal dress shirt with a wing collar, white vest, and white bow tie. The trousers are the same for all ranks.

US Army Physical training uniform

The U.S. Army currently uses the Army Improved Physical Fitness Uniform (IPFU), manufactured by UNICOR. It is essentially a tracksuit, marked with the ARMY name. It is required during Army physical training.

US Army Special Branch Uniforms

The United States Army also issues special uniforms to Soldiers in aviation fields if they serve as pilots or flight crew members and other special uniforms are issued to medical and food service personnel.

Aviation uniforms historically include the one-piece flight suit, constructed of flame resistant Nomex fabric, which have been issued in Olive Drab Green or Desert Tan, depending upon the area of intended use. The current flight-approved uniform is the Army Aircrew Combat Uniform (A2CU), which is outwardly similar to the ACU. Outside differences to the ACU include: Sleeve pencil pocket flaps, velcro closures on all pockets, flight-suit style thigh pockets, and the addition of lower leg pockets, oriented in similar fashion to the flight suits. The A2CU is also constructed of Nomex, similar to the flight suit so as to present a smaller risk of fire-related deaths in aviation accidents.

Medical personnel may wear unit-issued hospital scrubs, but the official uniform for medical personnel assigned to medical activities such as hospitals and clinics include white pants, different versions of white shirts for male or female Soldiers, black or white low quarter shoes, and accompanying insignia. A personally purchased white cardigan can be worn with this uniform in addition to other authorized uniform items. Food service personnel may receive exactly the same uniform as male and female medical personnel with differing accoutrements, and mess hall supervisors may a similar uniform with black pants.

US Army Officer Rank Insignia

These are the U.S. Army ranks in use today and their equivalent NATO designations.

Commissioned Officers:

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and Officer Candidate School. Certain professions, such as physicians, nurses, lawyers, and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army. But no matter what road an officer takes, the insignia are the same.

Address all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, address both colonels and lieutenant colonels as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)."

US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5
Insignia US-OF1B.svg US-OF1A.svg US-O3 insignia.svg US-O4 insignia.svg US-O5 insignia.svg
Title Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel
Abbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC
NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4

US DoD Pay Grade O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 Special
Insignia US-O6 insignia.svg US-O7 insignia.svg US-O8 insignia.svg US-O9 insignia.svg US-O10 insignia.svg US-O11 insignia.svg
Title Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General General of the Army
Abbreviation COL BG MG LTG GEN GA
NATO Code OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10

Warrant Officers:

Warrant Officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the Secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2).

Technically, warrant officers are to be addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)." However, many personnel do not use those terms, but instead say "Sir", "Ma'am", or most commonly, "Chief".

US DoD pay grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5
Insignia US-Army-WO1.png US-Army-CW2.png US-Army-CW3.png US-Army-CW4.png US-Army-CW5.png
Title Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5
Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CW3 CW4 CW5
NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5

Enlisted Personnel:

Sergeants are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers. Corporals are also non-commisioned officers, and serve as the base of the non-commissioned Officer (NCO) ranks. Corporals are also called "hard stripes", in recognition of their leadership position. This distinguishes them from specialists who might have the same pay grade, but not the leadership responsibilities.

Address privates (E1 and E2) and privates first class (E3) as "Private (last name)." Address specialists as "Specialist (last name)." Address sergeants, staff sergeants, and sergeants first class as "Sergeant (last name)." Address higher ranking sergeants by their full ranks in conjunction with their names.

US DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6
Insignia No Insignia US Army E-2.svg US Army E-3.svg US Army E-4 SPC.svg US Army E-4.svg US Army E-5.svg US Army E-6.svg
Title Private Private Private
First Class
Specialist Corporal Sergeant Staff
Abbreviation PVT ¹ PV2 ¹ PFC SPC ² CPL SGT SSG
NATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6
¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both Private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished
² SP4 is sometimes encountered in lieu of SPC for Specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at higher pay grades.

US DoD Pay grade E-7 E-8 E-9
Insignia US Army E-7.svg US Army E-8 MSG.svg US Army E-8 1SG.svg US Army E-9 SGM.svg US Army E-9 CSM.svg US Army E-9 SMA.svg
Title Sergeant
First Class
Sergeant Major
Sergeant Major
of the Army
Abbreviation SFC MSG 1SG SGM CSM SMA
NATO Code OR-7 OR-8 OR-8 OR-9 OR-9 OR-9